PDF Data Integration: The Relational Logic Approach

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This kind of approach has been tried in at least a few cases, and seems to go very much against the grain of the relational advantage of being able to treat these customers as an organized table of information, and presents the potential for serious performance problems as well.


There has been work in some areas on balancing the usefulness of a relational table as a way to hold and access multiple objects like customers in Ohio , while using a more object-oriented approach to represent a single customer object, as properties of a class. There is also the question of how to balance what we traditionally describe as 'static' references to tables and fields — taking advantage of the compiler's knowledge of database and temp-table definitions — with the more dynamic approach of using a reference to a set of data a handle, in this case as a way to access its tables and fields and values more indirectly, using syntax like httCustomer::CustName , for instance.

The static approach requires, at this stage of the product's evolution, having all the table definitions coded perhaps as include files in every class or procedure that references them, which is not a very encapsulated, object-oriented way of constructing things. WHERE coding style along with some of the ability to count on the compiler and other tools to make sure references are correct and efficient.

So in short, we find ourselves in a transition between a more or less strictly procedural way of dealing with more or less strictly relational data, and a much more object-oriented way of dealing with what is mostly that same data. The product itself is always evolving. Future language features and other enhancements, always influenced by the experiences and the requests of our customers, help bring us closer to an ideal of really simplifying the hard job of building successful business applications. Open discussions about best practices, that is, how to do the most effective job of using what the product provides at any given point in time, are also a key component of creating a common understanding of how best to proceed.

I won't attempt any definite answers here. That would turn a blog entry into a full-blown white paper. And the point is, the answers are still in flux, and not as definite as we all would like. There have been a number of threads on the OpenEdge Principles Forum on one aspect or another of the issues around handling relational data as objects, and you should take a look at them. To stimulate a continuing discussion, I've started a thread for comments and discussions on the subject, with this entry as a starting point.

Join in. We need the participation of the broader OpenEdge community to help us guide where we go from here with the product, as well as with the discussion of how best to use it and apply its distinct and still considerable value. Here's the link to the thread, just in case you don't yet know your way around the forums:.

View all posts from John Sadd on the Progress blog. It is precisely because records are related to one another through a join operation, rather than through links, that we do not need a predefined access path. The join operation is also highly time-consuming, requiring access to many records stored on disk in order to find the needed records.

Structured Query Languages SQL has become an international standard access language for defining and manipulating data in databases. It is a data-definition-and-management language of most well-known DBMS, including some nonrelational ones. SQL may be used as an independent query language to define the objects in a database, enter the data into the database, and access the data.

In the end-user environment, SQL is generally hidden by more user-friendly interfaces. Database design progresses from the design of the logical levels of the schema and the subschema to the design of the physical level. The aim of logical design , also known as data modeling , is to design the schema of the database and all the necessary subschemas. A relational database will consist of tables relations , each of which describes only the attributes of a particular class of entities.

Logical design begins with identifying the entity classes to be represented in the database and establishing relationships between pairs of these entities. A relationship is simply an interaction between the entities represented by the data. This relationship will be important for accessing the data.

Beginning Relational Data Modeling, Second Edition

Frequently, entity-relationship E-R diagrams , are used to perform data modeling. Normalization is the simplification of the logical view of data in relational databases. Each table is normalized, which means that all its fields will contain single data elements, all its records will be distinct, and each table will describe only a single class of entities. The objective of normalization is to prevent replication of data, with all its negative consequences.

After the logical design comes the physical design of the database.

All fields are specified as to their length and the nature of the data numeric, characters, and so on. A principal objective of physical design is to minimize the number of time-consuming disk accesses that will be necessary in order to answer typical database queries.

Integrating Linked Data Search Results Using Statistical Relational Learning Approaches

Frequently, indexes are provided to ensure fast access for such queries. A data dictionary is a software module and database containing descriptions and definitions concerning the structure, data elements, interrelationships, and other characteristics of an organization's database. Data dictionaries store the following information about the data maintained in databases:. Schema, subschemas, and physical schema. Which applications and users may retrieve the specific data and which applications and users are able to modify the data.

  1. Balancing relational data with an object-oriented approac.
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  4. What is a Data Mart? (vs a Data Warehouse) - Talend.

Cross-reference information, such as which programs use what data and which users receive what reports. Where individual data elements originate, and who is responsible for maintaining the data. What the standard naming conventions is for database entities. What the integrity rules is for the data. Where the data are stored in geographically distributed databases.

Valentine Gogichashvili - Data Integration in the World of Microservices

Contains all the data definitions, and the information necessary to identify data ownership. Ensures security and privacy of the data, as well as the information used during the development and maintenance of applications which rely on the database. The use of database technology enables organizations to control their data as a resource, however, it does not automatically produce organizational control of data. Components of Information Resource Management [Figure 6. Both organizational actions and technological means are necessary to:.

Ensure that a firm systematically accumulates data in its databases. Provides the appropriate access to the data to the appropriate employees. The principal components of this information resource management are:. Database Administration and Database Administration [Figure 6. The functional units responsible for managing the data are:. Data administrator - the person who has the central responsibility for an organizations data. Establishing the policies and specific procedures for collecting, validating, sharing, and inventorying data to be stored in databases and for making information accessible to the members of the organization and, possibly, to persons outside of it.

Data administration is a policy making function and the DA should have access to senior corporate management. Key person involved in the strategic planning of the data resource. Often defines the principal data entities, their attributes, and the relationships among them. Database Administrator - is a specialist responsible for maintaining standards for the development, maintenance, and security of an organization's databases.

2010 – today

Creating the databases and carrying out the policies laid down by the data administrator. In large organizations, the DBA function is actually performed by a group of professionals. Schema and subschemas of the database are most often defined by the DBA, who has the requisite technical knowledge. They also define the physical layout of the databases, with a view toward optimizing system performance for the expected pattern of database usage.

Data Integration : The Relational Logic Approach - ytenalizudos.ml

Standardizing names and other aspects of data definition. Provide security for the data stored in a database, and ensure privacy based on this security. Establish a disaster recovery plan for the databases. Three important trends in database management include:. Rich databases includes object-oriented databases.

Distributed Databases [Figure 6. Distributed databases are that are spread across several physical locations. In distributed databases, the data are placed where they are used most often, but the entire database is available to each authorized user. The goal of data integration is to provide programmatic and human users with integrated access to multiple, heterogeneous data sources, giving each user the illusion of a single, homogeneous database designed for his or her specific need.

The good news is that, in many cases, the data integration process can be automated. This book is an introduction to the problem of data integration and a rigorous account of one of the leading approaches to solving this problem, viz. Relational logic provides a theoretical framework for discussing data integration. Moreover, in many important cases, it provides algorithms for solving the problem in a computationally practical way. In many respects, relational logic does for data integration what relational algebra did for database theory several decades ago.

A companion web site provides interactive demonstrations of the algorithms.