But what is the downside? What are the drawbacks of vertical integration? Let us see the main disadvantages. However, there are alternatives to vertical integration, such as purchases from the market of tyres, for example and short- and long-term contracts for showrooms and with service stations, for example. Credit: aventalearning. A company can think of acquisitions and mergers for horizontal integration in the following situations:. The advantages of horizontal integration are economies of scale, increased differentiation more features that distinguish it from its competitors , increased market power, and the ability to capture new markets.
As touched upon earlier, the management of a company should be able to handle the bigger organisation efficiently if the advantages of horizontal integration are to be realised. The legal ramifications will have to be studied as there are strict anti-monopoly laws in many countries: if the merged entity threatens to oust competitors from the market, these laws will be used against it.
Standard Oil, which was seen as a powerful conglomerate brooking no competition, was split up into over 30 competing companies in an anti-trust case. As a company grows bigger with horizontal integration, it might become too rigid, and its procedures and practices may become unfriendly to change. This could prove dangerous to it. The decision whether to employ vertical or horizontal integration has a long-term influence on the business strategy of a company.
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Each company will have to choose the option more suitable to it, based on its unique place in the market and its customer value propositions. A deep analysis of its strengths and resources will help it make the right choice. Your email address will not be published. On a policy level, the drive towards DRR integration into the primary school curriculums can be seen by the proliferation of DRR policies, strategies and frameworks that have been produced on multinational and national levels on the issue Shaw These include the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction —, which first mentions the commitment of the international DRR fraternity to push for the integration of DRR principles into education curriculum across the globe.
This initial commitment became codified through the HFA — that had the overarching aim of building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. Specifically, Priority for Action 3 of the HFA states that countries must use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels of society.
This, priority for action, therefore, allowed for a breadth of formal and informal education measures, including integrating DRR into the primary school curriculum. At its core, the priority suggested that there could be a substantial reduction in hazards if people are informed about the measures they can use to reduce vulnerability Tuladhar et al.
In spite of the policy direction provided by the HFA, by the time it was replaced by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction in , evaluations of the progress on achieving Priority 3 indicated slow progress by many nations, especially those in Southern Africa including Botswana. This lack of progress has been attributed to a limited technical and institutional capacity to formulate fully integrated DRR and education policy at national levels.
This lack of integrated policy is augmented with the lack of human and physical resources to practically roll out such policies at subnational levels. However, before these issues can be elucidated, it would be important to highlight the current policy that drives DRR integration into the primary school curriculum in Botswana.
The policy recognises that the integration of risk reduction into the school curriculum may bring the skills and awareness that children need to be able to cope better in disaster situations. In response to the National Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy mandate, the Ministry of Education and Skills Development has started to include information on certain hazards into Botswana primary school curriculum.
It also places a greater emphasis on hazard awareness than risk reduction per se. These shortcomings are indicative of slow progress in integrating DRR into the school curriculum in Botswana. Specifically, progress reports on the implementation of the HFA have revealed that there was very little progress in integrating DRR into the education curriculum. Regardless of Botswana having such a hazard profile and literature indicating strides that other countries have achieved in integrating DRR into the curriculum and teacher professional development, there is the slow progress of Botswana with implementing DRR integration into the curriculum.
In order to understand the reason of the slow progress in Botswana, this paper will aim to ground truth regarding the literature and theory by exploring the overall DRR knowledge of the school teachers and their opinion on DRR integration in the primary school curriculum in Botswana. To this end, questionnaires were administered with the teachers within Gaborone and interviews held with the two government officials who are closely linked to education as it pertains to DRR.
The research methods and tools applied during the administration of the questionnaires and interviews are expounded on below. A case study research design was applied in the study which involved a mixed-method research approach.
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A mixed-method research approach as defined by Du Plessis and Majam is a method that involves qualitative and quantitative research methods being mixed in more than one stage of the study. As a point of departure, the research conducted an intensive secondary literature review. Prominent international and national documents, policies and articles were reviewed to get an insight into the theoretical and policy mandates propagating for the integration of DRR in education policies.
This review informed the formulation of the research tools used during the questionnaires with teachers and interviews with informants from the government. This quantitative element was supplemented with qualitative open-ended questions that allowed participants to describe their own experiences of the subject in more detail whilst providing the reasoning behind the numbers that came out from the Likert scale questions.
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The research tools were applied to a purposefully selected sample of participants that included 30 teachers from 6 primary schools. The primary schools were four government primary schools that follow the government curriculum which provided 12 teachers three from each school. The rationale for selecting schools only in Gaborone was that as the capital of the country, the schools within Gaborone would likely first display the result of any integration of DRR into the education curriculum.
Two private schools that follow the government curriculum but enhance the curriculum by adding more flesh to it were also selected and provided three respondents from each school. This was done to give an insight into whether what they teach beyond the government curriculum includes the integration of DRR. The last two were private schools that follow the Cambridge curriculum, some students from these two schools write the Botswana Primary Leaving Exam at grade 7, which follows the government curriculum whilst the other students write Cambridge exam at grade 6.
The sample of teachers and schools was selected with the guidance of officials within the Ministry of Education and Skills Development. It was not possible to have more than one participant from each of these two departments as the persons interviewed are currently the only persons directly responsible for DRR, and the integration thereof in education curriculum within the respective departments. Once data were collected from respondents, both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were applied. Through the narrative analysis, the researcher had to sort and reflect on the data and enhance and present it in a revised shape to the reader.
For the qualitative analysis, a distribution table was created to capture frequency of certain responses emanating from the Likert scale questions Auriacomb ; Kendall Some key results from the analysis are conveyed within the section to follow. The following section presents the findings and discussion on the data collected from questionnaires that were advanced to respondents from schools and interviews with the two informants from the key government departments. According to the EL model see Figure 1 , one of the key means of creating an in-depth understanding of a new topic is through the process of abstract conceptualisation.
This process allows a person to conceptualise a concept by drawing from their own experiences. As such, one of the questions posed to respondents related to how they would define key concepts such as disaster and DRR. The intention of the question was to gauge the level of understanding of basic DRR concepts amongst teachers, and if this understanding was facilitated through their own personal experiences or through dedicated training and skills development around the topic.
Some of the most often repeated themes in the definitions of the term disaster that was provided by teachers included: a terrible situation leading to loss of life and property the natural or man-made incident that causes human and environmental damage any unexpected incident that causes great destruction. The majority 20 out of 30 of the teachers could also formulate an informal definition of DRR centred on the following themes: minimising or preventing damage caused by disasters reducing the rate at which a calamity can take place minimising risk before, during and after a disaster.
In most cases, the definitions provided were more informal in their formulation not using precise terminology that would be indicative of an interaction with a formalised school curriculum that includes scientific definitions of terminology. What was most interesting was both sets of school private and public teachers drew from their own experiences, instead of scientifically accurate definitions of disaster and DRR. Scientifically, accurate definitions would have been indicative of some interaction with a curriculum or formal training on the topic of DRR. As a follow-up question to the first line of questioning, teachers were asked if they ever taught students about DRR.
How Racially Diverse Schools and Classrooms Can Benefit All Students
I Each of them touches on a different dimension of the situation: the historical, the temporal, the spatial. Authorities and adults certainly, school-age children probably, are influenced by their awareness of a sequence of past and future situations. Some may even operate with William James's , p. Others may be dancing to a slower tempo of change, thus becoming more responsive to the present situation. Whatever the perceived tempo, many must share the view that the future may reverse the direction of the past.
Some may see that new future direction as unswerving, unending, or long-lasting; others may see it as short-lived. And it is through attention to the phenomenological description of desegregation that these issues can be explored; a theme that is considered in several of the following chapters. Social status and leadership; the case of the school executive by Melvin Seeman Book 7 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
How Racially Diverse Schools and Classrooms Can Benefit All Students
A status factor approach to leadership : a report on a pilot study of four Ohio school systems by Ohio State University Book in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. On the meaning of alienation by Melvin Seeman Book 4 editions published in in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. The intellectual and the language of minorities by Melvin Seeman Book 4 editions published in in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
Alienation and alcohol : the role of work, mastery, and community in drinking behavior by Melvin Seeman Book 1 edition published in in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.